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As opposed to medications prescribed for sedation, the neuroleptics often produce signs of neurological dysfunction, such as extrapyrimidal effects (involuntary movements such as Parkinson-like tremors and other abnormal movements).The term "antipsychotics" is sometimes used because these drugs are generally used to treat symptoms of paranoia, psychosis, or serious distortions in the perception of reality, such as hallucinations or delusions. The term "minor tranquilizer" (which has been replaced by the more precise terms "sedative-hypnotic" or "anxiolytic") refers to drugs used to treat conditions such as insomnia and anxiety.OFFICIAL NAMES: Major tranquilizers (neuroleptics/antipsychotics): Chlorpromazine (Thorazine); chlorprothixene (Taractan); clozaril (Clozapine); fluphenazine (Permitil, Prolixin); haloperidol (Haldol); loxapine (Daxolin, Loxitane); mesoridazine (Serentil); molindone (Lidone, Moban); olanzapine (Zyprexa); perphenazine (Trilafon); pimozide (Orap); quetiapine (Seroquel); risperidone (Risperdal); thioridazine (Mellaril); thiothixene (Navane); trifluoperazine (Stelazine); trifuluopromazine (Vesprin); ziprasidone (Geodon).STREET NAMES: Major tranquilizers: antipsychotics, neuroleptics. DRUG CLASSIFICATIONS: Major tranquilizers: Not scheduled OFFICIAL NAMES: Minor tranquilizers (sedative-hypnotics/anxiolytics)/Benzodiazepines: Alprazolam (Xanax); chlordiazepoxide (Librium, Novopoxide); clonazepam (Klonopin); clorazepate (Azene, Tranxene); diazepam (Valium); estazolam (Pro Som); flunitrazepam (Rohypnol/illegal in the United States); flurazepam (Dalmane); halazepam (Paxipam); lorazepam (Ativan); midazolam (Versed); oxazepam (Serax); prazepam (Centrax); quazepam (Doral); temazepam (Restoril); triazolam (Halcion)STREET NAMES: Minor tranquilizers: (benzodiazepines: BZDs, tranks, downers, benzos, goofballs, happy pills, sedative-hypnotics, anxiolytics); (barbiturates: Amys, barbs, blues, downers, yellow jackets, rainbows, red devils); (nonbarbiturate sedative-hypnotics: ludes, Sopors)DRUG CLASSIFICATIONS: Benzodiazepines: Schedule IV, depressants OFFICIAL NAMES: Minor tranquilizers (sedative-hypnotics/anxiolytics)/Nonbenzodiazepines: Zaleplon (Sonata); zolpidem (Ambien); Buspirone (Bu Spar)DRUG CLASSIFICATIONS: Nonbenzodiadepine hypnotics: Zaleplon (Sonata); zolpidem (Ambien), Schedule IV, depressants; Buspirone (Buspar): Not scheduled OFFICIAL NAMES: Minor tranquilizers (sedative-hypnotics/anxiolytics)/ Barbiturates: Amobarbital (Amytal); butabarbital (Butisol); butalbital (Fiorinal, Sedapap); mepho-barbital (Mebaral); methohexital (Brevital); pentobarbital (Nembutal); phenobarbital (Luminal); secobarbital (Seconal)DRUG CLASSIFICATIONS: Barbiturates: Amobarbital (Amytal); butabarbital (Butisol); pentobarbital (Nembutal); secobarbital (Seconal), Schedule II, narcotic analgesics; mepho-barbital (Mebaral); methohexital (Brevital); phenobarbital (Luminal), Schedule IV, narcotic analgesics OFFICIAL NAMES: Minor tranquilizers/Nonbarbiturate sedative-hypnotics: Chloral hydrate (Aquachloral Supprettes, Noctec, Somnos); ethchlorvynol (Placidyl); glutethimide (Doriden); meprobamate (Miltown, Equanil); methaqualone (Quaalude); methyprylon (Noludar)DRUG CLASSIFICATIONS: Nonbarbiturate sedative-hypnotics: Chloral hydrate (Noctec, Somnos), ethchlorvynol (Placidyl), Schedule IV, depressants; glutethimide (Doriden), Schedule II, depressant; meprobamate (Miltown, Equanil), Schedule IV, depressant; methaqualone (Quaalude); methyprylon (Noludar), Schedule I, depressant Tranquilizers are agents that suppress or inhibit some aspects of central nervous system (CNS) activity—the brain, spinal cord, and the nerves from both—and are thus referred to as CNS depressants.Neuroleptics inhibit dopamine nerve transmission in the frontal lobes and in the limbic system—the emotion-regulating brain structures.Inhibiting this portion of the brain causes diffuse CNS depression and disrupts an individual's behavior entirely—reducing psychotic thoughts, perceptions, and agitation.In most developed countries, a large percentage of the people suffering, or in remission, from psychosis are treated in the community.This community-based treatment depends almost entirely on dosing with neuroleptics.
The most frequently cited possible cause of mental illnesses is an abnormal hyperactivity of the dopamine neurotransmitter system in the brain.The first sedative-hypnotic, or minor tranquilizer, bromide, originated in the 1860s.