Iran and dating
Chen and Mayden (2009) investigated the major clades of cyprinids using a multiple nuclear gene approach and tentatively recommended elevation of certain subfamilies to family.
This is not in general use at this writing and the Cyprinidae is retained as a single family here. (2002) using cytochrome b DNA of Cyprinidae conclude that the the Middle East is an important interchange area for this freshwater ichthyofauna rather than a centre of speciation.
Carps are mostly omnivores, feeding on small crustaceans, insects and some minute plants but some specialise in eating large plants, or other fishes.
Diet is reflected in pharyngeal tooth shape as mentioned above. A long intestine indicates a reliance on plant material which takes longer to digest.
Carps are remarkable for changes they undergo during the spawning season.
Some fish, which are usually silvery, develop bright reds and yellows.
Tooth counts are presented as a formula such as 2,5-4,1 which indicates 2 teeth in the outer left row and 4 on the inner right row.
The primitive chromosome number is 2n=50 but polyploidy is common and seen in Cyprinus, Carassius and in the schizothoracines.Siberia was probably an important dispersion centre for both Leucicinae and Cyprininae at that time. Some species may enter brackish water but the family is primarily a freshwater one.Carps have extremely sensitive hearing via the Weberian apparatus and this is thought to account for their success. This chemical stimulates other carps to flee and hide, another useful adaptation.They also found the phylogenetic utility of barbel possession to be limited as they were acquired independently in the two subfamilies.
The number of rows of pharyngeal teeth were a more reliable phylogenetic marker, at least at the generic level.
Cyprinion may have entered the Middle East during the colonization event that isolated the genera Barbus sensu lato and Schizothorax in the European and Asian basins respectively.